[{"id":"abnormal-heart-sounds","title":"Abnormal Heart Sounds and Murmurs","url":"https://medskl.com/module/index/abnormal-heart-sounds","overview":"Heart sounds are understood to be produced by the closure of heart valves. Abnormal heart sounds can arise from a variety of causes while murmurs arise from turbulent blood flow. Good examination technique is crucial in diagnosing abnormal heart sounds and murmurs.","objectives":"Upon completion of this activity, participants will be able to define, describe and recognize normal and abnormal heart sounds. The participants will acquire basic knowledge of heart valve physiology and pathology with a focus on mechanism. Further, the learner will acquire the necessary knowledge to conduct a focused history and cardiovascular exam. Lastly, participants will interpret findings through a comprehensive diagnostic approach to formulate an appropriate management plan.","faculty":["Dr. Michael Froeschl"]},{"id":"cardiac-arrest","title":"Cardiac Arrest","url":"https://medskl.com/module/index/cardiac-arrest","overview":"Cardiac arrest is defined as the stoppage of circulation due to the inability of the heart to contract effectively or at all. Unlike the assessment of most medical conditions, cardiac arrest is on immediate management and simultaneous information gathering to direct efforts appropriately.","objectives":"In this module, Dr. Adam Szulewski will teach you what you need to do within the first few minutes after recognizing that a patient is suffering from cardiac arrest. You will learn about interventions that have been proven to improve mortality.  You will learn the approach to cardiac arrest both in a hospital and out-of-hospital setting, including its differences in outcome and management, which rhythms are shockable and which are non-shockable, when to administer drugs such as epinephrine and amiodarone, and when to treat reversible causes of cardiac arrest. Lastly, you will learn proper team dynamic and what to do after the code, including how to deliver bad news to a patient’s family.","faculty":["Dr. Adam Szulewski"]},{"id":"chest-pain","title":"Chest Pain","url":"https://medskl.com/module/index/chest-pain","overview":"Chest pain is one of the most frequent reasons why people visit the Emergency Department.  The causes of chest pain, from benign to life-threatening, have overlapping symptoms. Which can make identification of serious problems difficult.  It is therefore important to be aware of the life-threatening causes of chest pain and have a systematic approach to assessing these patients.","objectives":"At the conclusion of this activity, participants will be able to list and recognize life-threatening causes of chest pain. The learner will be able to carry out a focused history and physical examination for the patient presenting with chest pain. Furthermore, the learner will be able to list relevant investigations to order for patients with chest pain, including an ECG and imaging, and analyze the information from these investigations to narrow down the differential diagnosis. Finally, participants will acquire knowledge in managing patients presenting with the most life-threatening causes of chest pain. This activity will allow participants to be comfortable in the assessment of any patient presenting to chest pain in the clinic or hospital setting.","faculty":["Dr. Rachel Liu"]},{"id":"dyslipidemia","title":"Dyslipidemia","url":"https://medskl.com/module/index/dyslipidemia","overview":"Dyslipidemia is common, and involves perturbed levels of one or more lipids or lipoproteins. In this module, we focus on high LDL, low HDL, and high triglycerides. It is important to understand the treatment of dyslipidemia since high cholesterol can accelerate atherosclerosis, increasing the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Additionally, high triglycerides levels (>10 mmol/L) may lead to acute pancreatitis. ","objectives":"In this module, Dr. Robert Hegele will discuss dyslipidemia and will delve into its causes, associated risks, and management. Critical questions to ask your patient, including ruling out secondary causes such as hypothyroidism, nephritic syndrome, obstructive liver disease, and medications, will be reviewed, as will physical findings which may include xanthelasma, corneal arcus, and xanthomas. You will learn a comprehensive diagnostic approach to familial hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceremia. Lastly, you will learn a comprehensive approach to first and second-line management of dyslipidemia and which drugs are safe to combine and which combinations you should avoid.","faculty":["Dr. Rob Hegele"]},{"id":"hypertension","title":"Hypertension","url":"https://medskl.com/module/index/hypertension","overview":"Hypertension is common. It is a well known risk factor for common causes of morbidity and mortality including strokes and myocardial infarction. With our aging population, increased rates of obesity and our sedentary lifestyle, the prevalence of hypertension is steadily rising.","objectives":"In this module, Dr. Ross Feldman will discuss Hypertension in depth. You will learn the correct blood pressure measuring technique, guidelines for diagnosis as well as when to begin treatment. Important aspects of the history as well as appropriate investigative modalities to differentiate between primary, secondary and white coat hypertension will also be discussed. Finally, you will learn about important lifestyle advice, appropriate pharmacotherapy, as well as blood pressure targets for distinct risk groups as part of the management of this condition.","faculty":["Dr. Ross Feldman"]},{"id":"hypoxia-and-cyanosis","title":"Hypoxia and Cyanosis","url":"https://medskl.com/module/index/hypoxia-and-cyanosis","overview":"Hypoxia is a low oxygen tension in the blood, while tension refers to the concentration of a dissolved gas. Cyanosis is the blue color which appears when around 4 grams of haemoglobin is deoxygenated, this represents the absolute level of deoxyHb, which means cyanosis may be absent in conditions such as anemia.","objectives":"In this module, Dr. Jonathan Silberberg, aka Prof Montage, will discuss hypoxia and cyanosis. You will learn the difference between hypoxia and cyanosis, as well as the causes of both central and peripheral cyanosis, which include congenital anomalies, anatomical shunts, and physiological shunts. You will learn how to properly analyze the oxygen dissociation curve and the alveolar-arterial gradient. Lastly, you will learn how to manage patients with hypoxia and cyanosis and gain an understanding about the proper use of oxygen therapy.","faculty":["Dr. Jonathan Silberberg"]},{"id":"palpitations","title":"Palpitations","url":"https://medskl.com/module/index/palpitations","overview":"Some people die from arrhythmia without palpitation! Palpitations or the awareness of one’s own heartbeat is rarely sinister, but you need to know when to take it more seriously. The heartbeat is felt when there is increased force of contraction, through adrenergic drive or high stroke volume. It will also be felt with loss of elasticity when the kinetic energy of pulsatile flow is transmitted to the chest wall.","objectives":"In this module, Dr. Jonathan Silberberg, aka Prof Montage will discuss an overview of palpitations. He will discuss why and when palpitations occur and why they occur more frequently as one gets older. You will learn when palpitations are benign and when they are worrisome and may be caused by a life-threatening condition. You will learn, what questions to ask and which symptoms are benign or suspicious.  Lastly, he will review a number of cases of arrhythmias including patients with polymorphic and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and atrial flutter, and you will learn in which patients these arrhythmias are more likely to occur. ","faculty":["Dr. Jonathan Silberberg"]}]